Miners self-help and mutual rescue safety technology

When a mine disaster occurs, the disaster area personnel correctly carry out disaster relief and disaster avoidance, which can effectively ensure the safety of the personnel in the disaster area and control the expansion of the disaster situation. A large number of facts prove that when a mine disaster occurs, the miners rely on their own wisdom and strength to actively and correctly take disaster relief, self-rescue and mutual rescue measures in the event of a disaster. This is an important part of minimizing accident losses.

The principle of action of the on-site personnel in the event of an accident reports the disaster situation in a timely manner

After a catastrophic accident, personnel near the accident site should try to understand or judge the nature, location and degree of the accident, and quickly report to the mine dispatching room using the nearest telephone or other means, and promptly issue an alarm to the area where the accident may be affected. So that other staff members know the disaster as soon as possible. When reporting the disaster situation, it is necessary to report the abnormal phenomena (fire smoke, flying dust, etc.), the abnormal sounds heard, and the abnormal impacts heard. It is impossible to judge the nature of the accident by subjective imagination, so as to avoid causing illusion and influence to the leaders. Disaster relief.

Active rescue

After a disaster, personnel in the disaster area and in the threatened area should be calm and calm. According to the disaster situation and site conditions, under the premise of ensuring their own safety, take active and effective methods and measures, promptly put into the scene to rescue, eliminate the accident in the initial stage or control to the minimum scope, and minimize the losses caused by the accident. In the rescue, we must maintain a unified command and strict organization. It is strictly forbidden to take risks and panic. It is strictly forbidden to do everything and act alone. Measures to prevent the deterioration of disaster areas and ensure the safety of disaster relief personnel should be taken. In particular, we must be vigilant and avoid poisoning. Regeneration accidents such as suffocation, explosion, electric shock, secondary protrusion, and secondary collapse.

Safe evacuation

When the disaster site does not have the conditions for accident rescue, or may endanger the safety of personnel, it should be led by the person in charge or experienced old workers, according to the evacuation route specified in the Mine Disaster Prevention and Treatment Plan and the actual local conditions at the time. In the case, try to choose the route with the best safety conditions and the shortest distance and quickly evacuate the dangerous area. When retreating, it is necessary to obey the leadership, listen to the commander, use protective equipment and utensils according to the disaster situation; in case of dangerous parts such as slippery coal , stagnant water area, fallen area, etc., the situation should be proved and passed carefully.

The correctness of the evacuation of the route in the disaster area determines the success or failure of self-rescue.

Properly avoid disasters

If it is impossible to retreat (the access is blocked by the roof, and the safe place cannot be reached during the effective working hours of the self-rescuer), you should quickly enter the temporary refuge room in the pre-built or fast-connected building, properly evacuate the disaster, and wait for the mine rescue team. Rescue, should not blindly move.

The accident scene example shows that the distressed person can be rescued for a long time after taking appropriate self-rescue measures. For example, after a fire broke out in a mine roadway on January 23, 1983, in addition to three workers rushing out of the fire source in time, 23 workers were blocked in the disaster area. They quickly retreated to the flat alley, and quickly built a temporary seal with bamboo poles and air ducts. In this closed 8 meters, a tighter second was built with chutes, overalls, bamboo poles, and air ducts. The road was temporarily closed. Then, send a person to monitor near the confinement, and other people lie down and rest. After 5 hours, he was rescued by the ambulance team. On the contrary, if the self-rescue measures are not correct, it may cause death. For example, in 1961, a fire broke out in a distribution room under a mine. The location and environment of 45 of the 53 people in distress were similar, but after 18 hours of the accident, only 18 people were still alive. The on-site survey and rescued personnel introduced: 1All those who have higher evacuation positions are dead, and most of the people with lower positions have saved their lives; 2 people who are lying on the floor and blocking their mouths with water towels keep their lives; On the contrary, especially the death of people in the direction of the smoke; 3 after the accident, most people who panic and screamed and screamed died.

Self-rescue using self-rescuer and refuge chamber

The "Safety Regulations for Coal Mines" stipulates that the personnel entering the well must carry the self-rescuer with them. In the vicinity of the coal seam mining face, and at the point of blasting, the evacuation personnel must have a telephone to the mine dispatching room and a refuge chamber for supplying compressed air facilities.


When there is a fire, explosion, coal or gas outburst in the underground, you should use the self-rescuer to save yourself.

For those who are more mobile, those who may be threatened by various disasters, as well as those who are exposed to coal and gas outburst mines or outburst areas of mining areas and gas mines, should use isolated self-rescuers; in other cases, generally A filter self-rescuer is available.


Working underground, when a fire or gas explosion is found, you must immediately use the self-rescuer to evacuate the site.

When using a self-rescuer, when the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air reaches or exceeds 0.5%, there will be some dry and hot feeling when inhaling. This is a normal phenomenon in which the self-rescuer works effectively. You must use the safety zone before you can remove the self-rescuer. You must not take it off because of the dry and hot feeling.

When using the self-rescuer to evacuate, you need to walk at a constant speed to keep your breathing even. Do not run wild and remove nose clips, mouthpieces or speak through the mouth.

When using the self-rescuer, the shell can also be breathed because the outer casing is touched and the canister cannot be removed. In order to reduce the load on the teeth, the can body can be held by hand.

Usually avoid falling, colliding with the self-rescuer, and not using it as a seat cushion to prevent air leakage.

If you feel inhaled when using the chemical self-rescuer to evacuate the disaster area, you should slow down and take a long breath. When you have enough air, walk quickly.

When using the compressed oxygen self-rescuer, the high-pressure oxygen cylinder is stored with 20 MPa of oxygen. During the carrying process, it is necessary to prevent impact bumps or when used as a seat cushion; it is strictly forbidden to open the handle during carrying.

Refuge chamber

The refuge chamber is a facility for miners to avoid and avoid being rescued in the event of an accident. Pay attention to the following matters when evacuating in an evacuation room:

Before entering the refuge chamber, there should be obvious signs such as clothing and miner's lamp outside the squatting area for the ambulance team to discover.

Be quiet when you are waiting, don't be impatient, try to lie on the bottom of the roadway to maintain energy, reduce oxygen consumption, and avoid inhaling more toxic gases.

Only one miner's lamp is left in the room, which is closed in the miner's lamp for use in re-retirement.

Iron or the like intermittently tapping rock sent SOS signal.

All disaster avoidance personnel must unite and help each other and strengthen their confidence.

When you are blocked by water, don't run down to visit. When the water is drained out of the roof, don't rush out to prevent carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and other gases from poisoning.

After seeing the ambulance staff, don't be overly excited to prevent the blood vessels from rupturing.

On-site first aid method

The key to on-site first aid is “just in time”. According to statistics, on-site first-aid is good, can reduce the death of 20% of the wounded; after the injury, the success rate of first-aid in 2 minutes can reach 70%, and the success rate of first-aid in 4--5 minutes can reach 43. %, the success rate of first aid after 15 minutes is lower.

First aid to poisoned or asphyxiated personnel

The wounded were immediately rushed from the danger zone to the fresh airstream and placed in a location with good roof and no water and soil conservation.

Immediately remove the wounded mouth, mucus in the nose, blood clots, dirt, broken coal, etc., and untie the tops and belts, and take off their rubber shoes.

Cover the wounded with clothes to keep warm.

According to the characteristics of heartbeat, breathing, pupil and the mental condition of the wounded, the severity of the injury is initially judged. The normal person beats 60---80 beats per minute and breathes 16--18 times. The pupils of the two eyes are equal and round, and the light can shrink rapidly and become conscious. The shocked two pupils are not the same size, and they are slow or unshrinkable to light. For those who have difficulty breathing or stop breathing, artificial respiration should be performed in time. When the phenomenon of heartbeat stops (heart sounds, pulse disappears), in addition to artificial respiration, chest compression should be performed simultaneously.

For poisoned persons with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, only mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration can be performed, and artificial respiration without chest compression or back pressure can not be performed, otherwise the injury will be aggravated. When the injured person has redness, tears, photophobia, sore throat, cough, chest tightness, it is caused by sulfur dioxide poisoning. When redness, tearing, sore throat, and yellowish brown fingers and hair appear, it indicates that the injured person is poisoned by nitrogen dioxide.

The duration of artificial respiration is to restore spontaneous breathing or until the casualty actually dies. When the ambulance team arrives at the scene, it should be transferred to the ambulance team to use the Soviet Union Su Sheng.

First aid for the injured

First aid to burned people

The first-aid points of miners' burns can be summarized as five words: extinction, inspection, prevention, package, and delivery.

Extinguish: Put out the fire on the wounded, get the wounded out of the heat source as soon as possible, and shorten the burn time.

Check: check the respiratory and heartbeat of the wounded; check for other trauma or poisonous gas poisoning; pay special attention to the presence of craniocerebral or visceral injuries and respiratory tract burns.

Prevention: To prevent shock, suffocation, and wound contamination. When the casualty suffocates due to pain and shock or sudden throat obstruction, first aid such as artificial respiration can be performed. In order to reduce the pollution and operation of the wound, when the injured person is inspected and transported on the spot, the casualty's clothes can be kept off or cut.

Pack: Wrap the wound with clean clothes to prevent infection. At the scene, in addition to chemical burns can be washed with a large amount of flowing water, the wound is generally not treated, try not to break the blisters to maintain the epidermis.

Send: Send the seriously injured to the hospital quickly. When carrying the wounded, the movement should be gentle, the movement should be smooth, and the injury should be observed at any time.

First aid to bleeding personnel

For such wounded people, we must first race against time, stop bleeding accurately and effectively, and then carry out other first aid treatment. The method of stopping bleeding varies depending on the type of bleeding. The types of bleeding are: 1 arterial bleeding, the blood is bright red, and it is sprayed from the wound. 2 venous bleeding, the blood is dark red, blood flow is slow and even. 3 Capillary blood vessels, the blood is red, flowing out of the wound like a water droplet.

For capillary and venous hemorrhage, the wound is usually wrapped with a clean cloth strip. Large venous hemorrhage can be stopped by pressure bandaging. For arterial bleeding, finger pressure hemostasis or pressure bandage hemostasis should be used.

For wounded people who suffer from hemoptysis due to internal injuries, first take a half-sitting posture to facilitate breathing and prevent suffocation. Then, comfort the wounded to balance the breathing, do not panic, so as not to raise blood pressure, increase breathing, and increase the amount of bleeding. Finally, wait for the doctor to go down to the first aid or escort out the well for medical treatment.

First aid to fractured personnel

For the fractured person, first use a hand towel or clothes as a cushion, and then use a wooden stick, wooden board, bamboo raft and other materials to make a temporary splint, fix the injured support, and then transport it to the hospital. For the extruded body, do not massage, heat or tie the cable skin to avoid aggravating the injury.

First aid to drowning personnel

The following first aid measures should be taken promptly for drowning personnel

Transfer: After the drowning person is rescued from the water, immediately send it to a place that is warmer and airy, loosen the belt, take off the wet clothes, and cover the dry clothes to keep the body temperature.

Check: Check the mouth and nose of the drowning person at the fastest speed. If there is muddy water and dirt, it should be quickly removed and scrubbed to keep the airway open.

Control water: make the drowning person take the prone position, use wood, clothes, etc. under the stomach; or kneel down the left leg, put the drowning person's abdomen on the right thigh of the rescuer, make the head face down, and press Its back forces the water in its body to flow out of the trachea and mouth.

Artificial respiration: When the water control effect of the above method is not satisfactory, you should immediately do prone or back-pressure artificial respiration or mouth-to-mouth insufflation, or chest compression.

First aid to electric shock

Turn off the power immediately or disconnect the electric shock from the power source.

Quickly observe the wounded for breathing and heartbeat. If you find that you have stopped breathing or have a weak heart sound, you should immediately perform artificial respiration or chest compression.

If both breathing and heartbeat have stopped, artificial respiration and extrathoracic heart compression should be performed at the same time.

For those who suffer from electric shock, if there are other injuries (such as falls, bleeding, etc.), they should be treated accordingly.

Product description:

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